责任链模式

责任链模式是一种行为设计模式, 允许你将请求沿着处理者链进行发送。 收到请求后, 每个处理者均可对请求进行处理, 或将其传递给链上的下个处理者。比如 kratos,gin等开源库的中间件实现。

代码实现

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package main

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
)

type Handler func(ctx context.Context, req interface{}) (resp interface{}, err error)

type Middleware func(next Handler) Handler

func Chain(middlewares ...Middleware) Middleware {
	return func(next Handler) Handler {
		for i := len(middlewares) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
			next = middlewares[i](next)
		}
		return next
	}
}

func main() {
	c := Chain(func(next Handler) Handler {
		return func(ctx context.Context, req interface{}) (resp interface{}, err error) {
			fmt.Println("handler 1 before")
			resp, err = next(ctx, req)
			fmt.Println("handler 1 after")
			return resp, err
		}
	}, func(next Handler) Handler {
		return func(ctx context.Context, req interface{}) (resp interface{}, err error) {
			fmt.Println("handler 2 before")
			resp, err = next(ctx, req)
			fmt.Println("handler 2 after")
			return resp, err
		}
	})
	resp, err := c(func(ctx context.Context, req interface{}) (resp interface{}, err error) {
		fmt.Println("handler req:", req)
		return req, nil
	})(context.Background(), "hello")
	fmt.Println(resp, err)
}

/*
handler 1 before
handler 2 before
handler req: hello
handler 2 after
handler 1 after
hello <nil>
*/

观察者模式

观察者模式用于触发联动。一个对象的改变会触发其它观察者的相关动作,而此对象无需关心连动对象的具体实现。

代码实现

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package main

import "fmt"

type subject interface {
	register(Observer observer)
	deregister(Observer observer)
	notifyAll()
}

type observer interface {
	update(string)
	getID() string
}

type item struct {
	observerList []observer
	name         string
	inStock      bool
}

func newItem(name string) *item {
	return &item{
		name: name,
	}
}
func (i *item) updateAvailability() {
	fmt.Printf("Item %s is now in stock\n", i.name)
	i.inStock = true
	i.notifyAll()
}
func (i *item) register(o observer) {
	i.observerList = append(i.observerList, o)
}

func (i *item) deregister(o observer) {
	i.observerList = removeFromslice(i.observerList, o)
}

func (i *item) notifyAll() {
	for _, observer := range i.observerList {
		observer.update(i.name)
	}
}

func removeFromslice(observerList []observer, observerToRemove observer) []observer {
	observerListLength := len(observerList)
	for i, observer := range observerList {
		if observerToRemove.getID() == observer.getID() {
			observerList[observerListLength-1], observerList[i] = observerList[i], observerList[observerListLength-1]
			return observerList[:observerListLength-1]
		}
	}
	return observerList
}

type customer struct {
	id string
}

func (c *customer) update(itemName string) {
	fmt.Printf("Sending email to customer %s for item %s\n", c.id, itemName)
}

func (c *customer) getID() string {
	return c.id
}

func main() {

	shirtItem := newItem("Nike Shirt")

	observerFirst := &customer{id: "abc@gmail.com"}
	observerSecond := &customer{id: "xyz@gmail.com"}

	shirtItem.register(observerFirst)
	shirtItem.register(observerSecond)

	shirtItem.updateAvailability()
}

/*
Item Nike Shirt is now in stock
Sending email to customer abc@gmail.com for item Nike Shirt
Sending email to customer xyz@gmail.com for item Nike Shirt
*/

模板方法模式

模版方法模式使用继承机制,把通用步骤和通用方法放到父类中,把具体实现延迟到子类中实现。使得实现符合开闭原则。

如实例代码中通用步骤在父类中实现(准备下载保存收尾)下载和保存的具体实现留到子类中,并且提供 保存方法的默认实现。

因为Golang不提供继承机制,需要使用匿名组合模拟实现继承。

此处需要注意:因为父类需要调用子类方法,所以子类需要匿名组合父类的同时,父类需要持有子类的引用。

代码实现

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package main

import "fmt"

type Downloader interface {
	Download(uri string)
}

type template struct {
	implement
	uri string
}

type implement interface {
	download()
	save()
}

func newTemplate(impl implement) *template {
	return &template{
		implement: impl,
	}
}

func (t *template) Download(uri string) {
	t.uri = uri
	fmt.Print("prepare downloading\n")
	t.implement.download()
	t.implement.save()
	fmt.Print("finish downloading\n")
}

func (t *template) save() {
	fmt.Print("default save\n")
}

type HTTPDownloader struct {
	*template
}

func NewHTTPDownloader() Downloader {
	downloader := &HTTPDownloader{}
	template := newTemplate(downloader)
	downloader.template = template
	return downloader
}

func (d *HTTPDownloader) download() {
	fmt.Printf("download %s via http\n", d.uri)
}

func (*HTTPDownloader) save() {
	fmt.Printf("http save\n")
}

type FTPDownloader struct {
	*template
}

func NewFTPDownloader() Downloader {
	downloader := &FTPDownloader{}
	template := newTemplate(downloader)
	downloader.template = template
	return downloader
}

func (d *FTPDownloader) download() {
	fmt.Printf("download %s via ftp\n", d.uri)
}

func main() {
	downloader := NewHTTPDownloader()
	downloader.Download("http://example.com/abc.zip")

	downloader = NewFTPDownloader()
	downloader.Download("ftp://example.com/abc.zip")
}

/*
prepare downloading
download http://example.com/abc.zip via http
http save
finish downloading
prepare downloading
download ftp://example.com/abc.zip via ftp
default save
finish downloading
*/

命令模式

命令模式是一种行为设计模式, 它可将请求转换为一个包含与请求相关的所有信息的独立对象。 该转换让你能根据不同的请求将方法参数化、 延迟请求执行或将其放入队列中, 且能实现可撤销操作。

命令模式本质是把某个对象的方法调用封装到对象中,方便传递、存储、调用。

示例中把主板单中的启动(start)方法和重启(reboot)方法封装为命令对象,再传递到主机(box)对象中。于两个按钮进行绑定:

  • 第一个机箱(box1)设置按钮1(button1) 为开机按钮2(button2)为重启。
  • 第二个机箱(box1)设置按钮2(button2) 为开机按钮1(button1)为重启。

从而得到配置灵活性。

除了配置灵活外,使用命令模式还可以用作:

  • 批处理
  • 任务队列
  • undo, redo

等把具体命令封装到对象中使用的场合

代码实现

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package command

import "fmt"

type Command interface {
	Execute()
}

type StartCommand struct {
	mb *MotherBoard
}

func NewStartCommand(mb *MotherBoard) *StartCommand {
	return &StartCommand{
		mb: mb,
	}
}

func (c *StartCommand) Execute() {
	c.mb.Start()
}

type RebootCommand struct {
	mb *MotherBoard
}

func NewRebootCommand(mb *MotherBoard) *RebootCommand {
	return &RebootCommand{
		mb: mb,
	}
}

func (c *RebootCommand) Execute() {
	c.mb.Reboot()
}

type MotherBoard struct{}

func (*MotherBoard) Start() {
	fmt.Print("system starting\n")
}

func (*MotherBoard) Reboot() {
	fmt.Print("system rebooting\n")
}

type Box struct {
	button1 Command
	button2 Command
}

func NewBox(button1, button2 Command) *Box {
	return &Box{
		button1: button1,
		button2: button2,
	}
}

func (b *Box) PressButton1() {
	b.button1.Execute()
}

func (b *Box) PressButton2() {
	b.button2.Execute()
}

策略模式

它能让你定义一系列算法, 并将每种算法分别放入独立的类中, 以使算法的对象能够相互替换。

代码实现

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package main

import "fmt"

type Payment struct {
	context  *PaymentContext
	strategy PaymentStrategy
}

type PaymentContext struct {
	Name, CardID string
	Money        int
}

func NewPayment(name, cardid string, money int, strategy PaymentStrategy) *Payment {
	return &Payment{
		context: &PaymentContext{
			Name:   name,
			CardID: cardid,
			Money:  money,
		},
		strategy: strategy,
	}
}

func (p *Payment) Pay() {
	p.strategy.Pay(p.context)
}

type PaymentStrategy interface {
	Pay(*PaymentContext)
}

type Cash struct{}

func (*Cash) Pay(ctx *PaymentContext) {
	fmt.Printf("Pay $%d to %s by cash\n", ctx.Money, ctx.Name)
}

type Bank struct{}

func (*Bank) Pay(ctx *PaymentContext) {
	fmt.Printf("Pay $%d to %s by bank account %s\n", ctx.Money, ctx.Name, ctx.CardID)
}

func main() {
	payment := NewPayment("Ada", "", 123, &Cash{})
	payment.Pay()

	payment = NewPayment("Bob", "0002", 888, &Bank{})
	payment.Pay()
}

/*
Pay $123 to Ada by cash
Pay $888 to Bob by bank account 0002
*/

状态模式

让你能在一个对象的内部状态变化时改变其行为, 使其看上去就像改变了自身所属的类一样。

代码实现

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package main

import (
	"fmt"
)

// Machine 状态机
type Machine struct {
	state IState
}

// SetState 更新状态
func (m *Machine) SetState(state IState) {
	m.state = state
}

// GetStateName 获取当前状态
func (m *Machine) GetStateName() string {
	return m.state.GetName()
}

func (m *Machine) Approval() {
	m.state.Approval(m)
}

func (m *Machine) Reject() {
	m.state.Reject(m)
}

// IState 状态
type IState interface {
	// 审批通过
	Approval(m *Machine)
	// 驳回
	Reject(m *Machine)
	// 获取当前状态名称
	GetName() string
}

// leaderApproveState 直属领导审批
type leaderApproveState struct{}

// Approval 获取状态名字
func (leaderApproveState) Approval(m *Machine) {
	fmt.Println("leader 审批成功")
	m.SetState(GetFinanceApproveState())
}

// GetName 获取状态名字
func (leaderApproveState) GetName() string {
	return "LeaderApproveState"
}

// Reject 获取状态名字
func (leaderApproveState) Reject(m *Machine) {}

func GetLeaderApproveState() IState {
	return &leaderApproveState{}
}

// financeApproveState 财务审批
type financeApproveState struct{}

// Approval 审批通过
func (f financeApproveState) Approval(m *Machine) {
	fmt.Println("财务审批成功")
	fmt.Println("出发打款操作")
}

// 拒绝
func (f financeApproveState) Reject(m *Machine) {
	m.SetState(GetLeaderApproveState())
}

// GetName 获取名字
func (f financeApproveState) GetName() string {
	return "FinanceApproveState"
}

// GetFinanceApproveState GetFinanceApproveState
func GetFinanceApproveState() IState {
	return &financeApproveState{}
}

func main() {
	m := &Machine{state: GetLeaderApproveState()}
	fmt.Println("LeaderApproveState", m.GetStateName())
	m.Approval()
	fmt.Println("FinanceApproveState", m.GetStateName())
	m.Reject()
	fmt.Println("LeaderApproveState", m.GetStateName())
	m.Approval()
	fmt.Println("FinanceApproveState", m.GetStateName())
	m.Approval()
}

/*
LeaderApproveState LeaderApproveState
leader 审批成功
FinanceApproveState FinanceApproveState
LeaderApproveState LeaderApproveState
leader 审批成功
FinanceApproveState FinanceApproveState
财务审批成功
出发打款操作
*/

迭代器模式

让你能在不暴露集合底层表现形式 (列表、 栈和树等) 的情况下遍历集合中所有的元素。

代码实现

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package main

import "fmt"

type collection interface {
	createIterator() iterator
}

type userCollection struct {
	users []*user
}

func (u *userCollection) createIterator() iterator {
	return &userIterator{
		users: u.users,
	}
}

type iterator interface {
	hasNext() bool
	getNext() *user
}

type userIterator struct {
	index int
	users []*user
}

func (u *userIterator) hasNext() bool {
	if u.index < len(u.users) {
		return true
	}
	return false

}
func (u *userIterator) getNext() *user {
	if u.hasNext() {
		user := u.users[u.index]
		u.index++
		return user
	}
	return nil
}

type user struct {
	name string
	age  int
}

func main() {

	user1 := &user{
		name: "a",
		age:  30,
	}
	user2 := &user{
		name: "b",
		age:  20,
	}

	userCollection := &userCollection{
		users: []*user{user1, user2},
	}

	iterator := userCollection.createIterator()

	for iterator.hasNext() {
		user := iterator.getNext()
		fmt.Printf("User is %+v\n", user)
	}
}

/*
User is &{name:a age:30}
User is &{name:b age:20}
*/

访问者模式

访问者模式可以给一系列对象透明的添加功能,并且把相关代码封装到一个类中。

对象只要预留访问者接口Accept则后期为对象添加功能的时候就不需要改动对象。

代码实现

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package main

import "fmt"

type Customer interface {
	Accept(Visitor)
}

type Visitor interface {
	Visit(Customer)
}

type EnterpriseCustomer struct {
	name string
}

type CustomerCol struct {
	customers []Customer
}

func (c *CustomerCol) Add(customer Customer) {
	c.customers = append(c.customers, customer)
}

func (c *CustomerCol) Accept(visitor Visitor) {
	for _, customer := range c.customers {
		customer.Accept(visitor)
	}
}

func NewEnterpriseCustomer(name string) *EnterpriseCustomer {
	return &EnterpriseCustomer{
		name: name,
	}
}

func (c *EnterpriseCustomer) Accept(visitor Visitor) {
	visitor.Visit(c)
}

type IndividualCustomer struct {
	name string
}

func NewIndividualCustomer(name string) *IndividualCustomer {
	return &IndividualCustomer{
		name: name,
	}
}

func (c *IndividualCustomer) Accept(visitor Visitor) {
	visitor.Visit(c)
}

type ServiceRequestVisitor struct{}

func (*ServiceRequestVisitor) Visit(customer Customer) {
	switch c := customer.(type) {
	case *EnterpriseCustomer:
		fmt.Printf("serving enterprise customer %s\n", c.name)
	case *IndividualCustomer:
		fmt.Printf("serving individual customer %s\n", c.name)
	}
}

// only for enterprise
type AnalysisVisitor struct{}

func (*AnalysisVisitor) Visit(customer Customer) {
	switch c := customer.(type) {
	case *EnterpriseCustomer:
		fmt.Printf("analysis enterprise customer %s\n", c.name)
	}
}

func main() {
	c := &CustomerCol{}
	c.Add(NewEnterpriseCustomer("A company"))
	c.Add(NewEnterpriseCustomer("B company"))
	c.Add(NewIndividualCustomer("bob"))
	c.Accept(&ServiceRequestVisitor{})

	c = &CustomerCol{}
	c.Add(NewEnterpriseCustomer("A company"))
	c.Add(NewIndividualCustomer("bob"))
	c.Add(NewEnterpriseCustomer("B company"))
	c.Accept(&AnalysisVisitor{})
}

/*
serving enterprise customer A company
serving enterprise customer B company
serving individual customer bob
analysis enterprise customer A company
analysis enterprise customer B company
*/

备忘录模式

备忘录模式用于保存程序内部状态到外部,又不希望暴露内部状态的情形。

程序内部状态使用窄接口传递给外部进行存储,从而不暴露程序实现细节。

备忘录模式同时可以离线保存内部状态,如保存到数据库,文件等。

代码实现

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package main

import "fmt"

type Memento interface{}

type Game struct {
	hp, mp int
}

type gameMemento struct {
	hp, mp int
}

func (g *Game) Play(mpDelta, hpDelta int) {
	g.mp += mpDelta
	g.hp += hpDelta
}

func (g *Game) Save() Memento {
	return &gameMemento{
		hp: g.hp,
		mp: g.mp,
	}
}

func (g *Game) Load(m Memento) {
	gm := m.(*gameMemento)
	g.mp = gm.mp
	g.hp = gm.hp
}

func (g *Game) Status() {
	fmt.Printf("Current HP:%d, MP:%d\n", g.hp, g.mp)
}

func main() {
	game := &Game{
		hp: 10,
		mp: 10,
	}

	game.Status()
	progress := game.Save()

	game.Play(-2, -3)
	game.Status()

	game.Load(progress)
	game.Status()

}

/*
Current HP:10, MP:10
Current HP:7, MP:8
Current HP:10, MP:10
*/

解释器模式

解释器模式定义一套语言文法,并设计该语言解释器,使用户能使用特定文法控制解释器行为。

解释器模式的意义在于,它分离多种复杂功能的实现,每个功能只需关注自身的解释。

对于调用者不用关心内部的解释器的工作,只需要用简单的方式组合命令就可以。

代码实现

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package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"strconv"
	"strings"
)

type Node interface {
	Interpret() int
}

type ValNode struct {
	val int
}

func (n *ValNode) Interpret() int {
	return n.val
}

type AddNode struct {
	left, right Node
}

func (n *AddNode) Interpret() int {
	return n.left.Interpret() + n.right.Interpret()
}

type MinNode struct {
	left, right Node
}

func (n *MinNode) Interpret() int {
	return n.left.Interpret() - n.right.Interpret()
}

type Parser struct {
	exp   []string
	index int
	prev  Node
}

func (p *Parser) Parse(exp string) {
	p.exp = strings.Split(exp, " ")

	for {
		if p.index >= len(p.exp) {
			return
		}
		switch p.exp[p.index] {
		case "+":
			p.prev = p.newAddNode()
		case "-":
			p.prev = p.newMinNode()
		default:
			p.prev = p.newValNode()
		}
	}
}

func (p *Parser) newAddNode() Node {
	p.index++
	return &AddNode{
		left:  p.prev,
		right: p.newValNode(),
	}
}

func (p *Parser) newMinNode() Node {
	p.index++
	return &MinNode{
		left:  p.prev,
		right: p.newValNode(),
	}
}

func (p *Parser) newValNode() Node {
	v, _ := strconv.Atoi(p.exp[p.index])
	p.index++
	return &ValNode{
		val: v,
	}
}

func (p *Parser) Result() Node {
	return p.prev
}

func main() {
	p := &Parser{}
	p.Parse("1 + 2 + 3 - 4 + 5 - 6")
	res := p.Result().Interpret()
	expect := 1
	if res != expect {
		fmt.Println(res,expect)
	}
}

中介模式

中介者模式封装对象之间互交,使依赖变的简单,并且使复杂互交简单化,封装在中介者中。

例子中的中介者使用单例模式生成中介者。

中介者的change使用switch判断类型。

代码实现

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package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"strings"
)

type CDDriver struct {
	Data string
}

func (c *CDDriver) ReadData() {
	c.Data = "music,image"

	fmt.Printf("CDDriver: reading data %s\n", c.Data)
	GetMediatorInstance().changed(c)
}

type CPU struct {
	Video string
	Sound string
}

func (c *CPU) Process(data string) {
	sp := strings.Split(data, ",")
	c.Sound = sp[0]
	c.Video = sp[1]

	fmt.Printf("CPU: split data with Sound %s, Video %s\n", c.Sound, c.Video)
	GetMediatorInstance().changed(c)
}

type VideoCard struct {
	Data string
}

func (v *VideoCard) Display(data string) {
	v.Data = data
	fmt.Printf("VideoCard: display %s\n", v.Data)
	GetMediatorInstance().changed(v)
}

type SoundCard struct {
	Data string
}

func (s *SoundCard) Play(data string) {
	s.Data = data
	fmt.Printf("SoundCard: play %s\n", s.Data)
	GetMediatorInstance().changed(s)
}

type Mediator struct {
	CD    *CDDriver
	CPU   *CPU
	Video *VideoCard
	Sound *SoundCard
}

var mediator *Mediator

func GetMediatorInstance() *Mediator {
	if mediator == nil {
		mediator = &Mediator{}
	}
	return mediator
}

func (m *Mediator) changed(i interface{}) {
	switch inst := i.(type) {
	case *CDDriver:
		m.CPU.Process(inst.Data)
	case *CPU:
		m.Sound.Play(inst.Sound)
		m.Video.Display(inst.Video)
	}
}

func main() {
	mediator := GetMediatorInstance()
	mediator.CD = &CDDriver{}
	mediator.CPU = &CPU{}
	mediator.Video = &VideoCard{}
	mediator.Sound = &SoundCard{}

	//Tiggle
	mediator.CD.ReadData()

	fmt.Printf("%#v\n", mediator)
}

/*
CDDriver: reading data music,image
CPU: split data with Sound music, Video image
SoundCard: play music
VideoCard: display image
&main.Mediator{CD:(*main.CDDriver)(0xc000010250), CPU:(*main.CPU)(0xc000060040), Video:(*main.VideoCard)(0xc000010260), Sound:(*main.SoundCard)(0xc000010270)}
*/

References

https://github.com/senghoo/golang-design-pattern

https://refactoringguru.cn/design-patterns

https://lailin.xyz/post/singleton.html